Monday, November 29, 2004

France, History Of, The Fourth Republic

Shortly after his return to Paris, de Gaulle announced that the citizens of France would determine their future governmental system as soon as the absent prisoners and deportees could be repatriated. That process was largely completed by midsummer 1945, soon after Germany's defeat, whereupon de Gaulle scheduled a combined referendum and election for October. Women,

Friday, November 26, 2004

Papen, Franz Von

The scion of a wealthy Catholic landowning family, Papen began his career as a professional soldier. At the beginning of World War I, he was military attaché in Washington, but after

Wednesday, November 24, 2004


Also spelled  Acre , or  'Akka  city, northwest Israel. It lies along the Mediterranean Sea, at the north end of the Bay of Haifa (formerly Bay of Acre). Its natural harbour was a frequent target for Palestine's many invaders over the centuries. The earliest mention of 'Akko is in an Egyptian text dating from the 19th century BC. The Bible (Judges 1) states that the city did not fall to the Jews under Joshua and his

Monday, November 22, 2004


Indian Buddhist monk-philosopher and founder of the Madhyamika (“Middle Path”) school whose clarification of the concept of sunyata (“emptiness”) is regarded as an intellectual and spiritual achievement of the highest order. He is recognized as a patriarch by several later Buddhist schools. The two basic works that are substantially his and that have remained available

Saturday, November 20, 2004

Kabila, Laurent-désiré

Congolese political leader (b. Nov. 27, 1939, Jadotville, Katanga province, Belgian Congo—confirmed dead on Jan. 18, 2001, Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of the Congo [DRC; formerly Zaire]), was president of the DRC from 1997 until his death. In 1960, after studying in France and Tanzania, Kabila became a youth leader in a political party allied to Congo's first postindependence prime minister, Marxist-Maoist

Friday, November 19, 2004

Shariqah, Ash-

English  Sharjah  constituent emirate of the United Arab Emirates (formerly Trucial States, or Trucial Oman). Some of ash-Shariqah's interior boundaries are only presumptive, but its main portion is an irregularly shaped tract, oriented northwest–southeast, stretching about 60 miles (100 km) from the Persian Gulf (northwest) to the central inland region of the Oman promontory (southeast).

Tuesday, November 16, 2004

Rabin, Leah

German-born Israeli consort and peace activist (b. April 8, 1928, Königsberg, Ger. [now Kaliningrad, Russia]—d. Nov. 12, 2000, Tel Aviv, Israel), was the wife of former Israeli prime minister Yitzhak Rabin, who was assassinated in 1995. She grew up in Tel Aviv and met her husband while both were serving in the Palmach, a Jewish militia unit. The two were married during the Arab-Israeli war of 1948–49. Leah Rabin

Monday, November 15, 2004

Eads, James B.

Eads was named for his mother's cousin James Buchanan, a Pennsylvania congressman who later became president of the United

Friday, November 12, 2004

Egypt, Political life

The political history of the Mamluk state is complex; during their 264-year reign, no fewer than 45 Mamluks gained the sultanate, and once, in desperate circumstances, a caliph (in 1412) was briefly installed as sultan. At times individual Mamluks succeeded in establishing dynasties, most notably Sultan Qala'un (ruled 1279–90), whose progeny ruled Egypt, with two short interruptions, until 1382. Often

Wednesday, November 10, 2004


To be elected, an abbess must be at least 40 years old and a professed nun for at least 10 years. She is solemnly blessed

Tuesday, November 09, 2004


Town, eastern Maharashtra state, western India. Originally called Segaon, the village was given its present name (Hindi: Village of Service) by Mohandas Gandhi, the Indian nationalist leader. In 1936 he left his ashram (hermitage) on the Sabarmati River, near Ahmadabad, and settled at Sevagram. There he founded another ashram and directed the independence movement. Within this he

Sunday, November 07, 2004

Cole, Nat King

Cole grew up in Chicago where, by age 12, he sang and played organ in the church

Friday, November 05, 2004

Auslander, Joseph


Tuesday, November 02, 2004

France, History Of, Urban prosperity

Town life continued to flourish. A few places, favoured by political and ecclesiastical as well as by economic circumstances, grew far larger than the rest. Paris could probably count more than 100,000 inhabitants by the late 13th century, possibly many more than that; some great provincial centres—e.g., Toulouse, Bordeaux, Arras, Rouen—may have surpassed 25,000, but most of the older cities