Sunday, October 31, 2004

Aesthetics, The origins of modern aesthetics

Francis Bacon wrote essays on beauty and deformity, but he confined his remarks to the human figure. René Descartes produced a treatise on music, although it contains little that would be recognized as aesthetics in the modern sense. During the first decades of modern philosophy, aesthetics flourished, not in the works of the great philosophers, but in the writings

Friday, October 29, 2004

Earthshine

At this time an observer on the Moon would see the Earth as a bright body, four times the diameter of the Moon as seen from Earth, almost completely illuminated

Wednesday, October 27, 2004

Kafr Ash-shaykh

Also spelled  Kafr El-sheikh,   town, capital of Kafr ash-Shaykh muhafazah (governorate) of the central Nile Delta, Lower Egypt, bordering the Mediterranean. The town is situated in a fertile plain about 25 miles (40 km) north-northwest of Tanta. Industries in the town include cotton-processing plants and factories producing cigarettes, rice strawboard, rice chaff oil, and chemical products. A former royal palace

Tuesday, October 26, 2004

Radar, Interference

Signals from nearby radars and other transmitters can be strong enough to enter a radar receiver and produce spurious responses. Well-trained operators are not often deceived by interference, though they may find it a nuisance. Interference is not as easily ignored by automatic detection and tracking systems, however, and so some method is usually needed to recognize

Sunday, October 24, 2004

Baburen, Dirck Van

After studying painting with a portraitist and history painter in Utrecht, Baburen traveled to Rome about 1612. His most important Italian commission was the decoration of a chapel in the

Thursday, October 21, 2004

Adams, Henry

Henry Adams, The Degradation of the Democratic Dogma (1919, reprinted 1969), a collection of Adams' theoretical essays with a lengthy introduction by his brother Brooks; “The Great Secession Winter 1860–1861,” Proceedings, Massachusetts Historical Society, 43:656–687 (1909–10), an essay, written during the secession crisis of 1860–61 but not published for 50 years, which analyzed the political developments that led to the Civil War; Essays in Anglo-Saxon Law (1876), a collection of studies in early British history written by Adams and his seminar students; Historical Essays (1891), a reprint of articles Adams had previously published in various journals; and introductions to Documents Relating to New England Federalism (1877), which shed light on the politics of the early national period; Ernest Samuels (ed.), The Education of Henry Adams (1973), is the definitive edition in which collation is made between the privately printed text and the revised text of the published edition. Worthington Chauncey Ford (ed.), A Cycle of Adams Letters, 1861–1865, 2 vol. (1920, reprinted in 1 vol. 1969), Letters of Henry Adams, 1858–1891 (1930, reprinted 1969), and Letters of Henry Adams, 1892–1918 (1938, reprinted 1969), all contain a rich selection of Adams' letters; Ernest Samuels, The Young Henry Adams (1948), Henry Adams: The Middle Years (1958), and Henry Adams: The Major Phase (1964), the most comprehensive and distinguished biography of Adams; J.C. Levenson, The Mind and Art of Henry Adams (1957), an unexcelled interpretative work centring upon both the man and his writings; Melvin Lyon, Symbol and Idea in Henry Adams (1970), an examination of the problem of illusion and reality, which Adams often expressed through symbols, as seen in his six major works; Vern Wagner, The Suspension of Henry Adams: A Study of Manner and Matter (1969), a discussion of Adams' writing style as an example of unique literary artistry; Frederic Cople Jaher, Doubters and Dissenters: Cataclysmic Thought in America, 1885–1918 (1964), a critical study of Adams, seeing him as a displaced Brahmin afloat in an industrialized world he was helpless to understand; William Dusinberre, Henry Adams: The Myth of Failure (1980), is a reconsideration.

Wednesday, October 20, 2004

Affreightment

Essentially, such a contract is an agreement between two parties, the carrier and the shipper. The carrier undertakes to carry the goods to

Monday, October 18, 2004

Ardagh Chalice

Large, two-handled silver cup, decorated with gold, gilt bronze, and enamel, one of the best-known examples of Irish ecclesiastical metalwork. It was discovered in 1868, together with a small bronze cup and four brooches, in a potato field in Ardagh, County Limerick, Ire. The decoration consists mainly of panels of fine gold and silver filigree applied to the otherwise plain

Saturday, October 16, 2004

Interest

Interest may also be viewed as the income derived from the possession of contractual promises from others to pay sums in the future. The question may be asked, “What is the value today of a promise to pay $100 a year from now?” If the answer is $100, then no interest income is generated.

Thursday, October 14, 2004

Turkey, Flag Of

Various myths are associated with the symbolism of the red colour and the star and crescent, but none really explains their origins. Although the star and crescent are often seen as typical Muslim symbols, in fact they have a history long predating the rise of Islam. Ancient civilizations throughout the Middle East used a crescent moon as a religious symbol, and the

Monday, October 11, 2004

Diamond Cutting

From the girdler the diamond goes to the lapper, or blocker, who specializes in placing the first 18 main facets on a brilliant-cut diamond. It then goes to the brillianteer, the worker who places and polishes the remaining 40 facets, if the stone is being cut in the standard 58-facet brilliant cut. Placing and polishing are done by setting the stone either in a lead dop or a mechanical

Saturday, October 09, 2004

Essex, Robert Devereux, 3rd Earl Of, Viscount Hereford Lord Ferrers, Lord Bourchier

Because his father, Robert Devereux, 2nd earl of Essex, had been executed for treason (1601), Devereux had to obtain special permission from Parliament to succeed (1604) to his family titles

Thursday, October 07, 2004

Insurance, Problems

Private health insurance contracts are in general quite restricted in coverage, to the point that many consider them to be inadequate for modern conditions. They also lend themselves to abuses such as overutilization of coverage, multiple policies, and insuring for more than 100 percent of the expected loss. Health insurance, by its very existence, helps to escalate

Wednesday, October 06, 2004

Pueblo Libre

Community in Pueblo Libre (formerly Magdalena Vieja) district, southwestern Lima–Callao metropolitan area, Peru. Mainly a middle-income residential community, it is dotted with small parks. Although many of the homes are modern, some predate Peru's independence from Spain (1824). The liberators Simón Bolívar and José de San Martín both lived in Pueblo Libre in what is now

Monday, October 04, 2004

Yuscarán

Founded between 1730 and 1740, when gold and silver were discovered in the area, Yuscarán was a prosperous mining centre during the colonial period. Mining halted in the 19th century but was resumed in the 1940s. The town, which preserves a colonial

Friday, October 01, 2004

Orange

City, east-central New South Wales, Australia. It is located near the slopes of Mount Canobolas, an extinct volcano. In 1828 the area was named by Sir Thomas Mitchell in memory of the Prince of Orange, his commander during the Peninsular War, and the village of Orange was proclaimed in 1846. It grew after the announcement in 1851 of payable gold deposits at nearby Ophir. Farming replaced