Wednesday, September 29, 2004

Differential Analyzer

The American electrical engineer Vannevar Bush and others at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology invented the first continuous integraph, later called a differential analyzer, during the early 1930s.

Monday, September 27, 2004


The people are agricultural, using the plow or digging stick to plant staples of corn, beans, and squash,

Saturday, September 25, 2004

Ibrahim Müteferrika

A Hungarian by origin, Ibrahim converted to Islam and entered the Ottoman diplomatic service. He took

Friday, September 24, 2004

Ahern, Bertie

Ahern was educated at St. Aidan's Christian Brothers secondary school, Rathmines College of Commerce, University College in Dublin, and the London School of Economics, obtaining degrees in taxation, business administration, and computer science. He was elected to the Dáil (lower house of Parliament)

Wednesday, September 22, 2004

Epistemology, From scientific theology to secular science

For most of the Middle Ages there was no split between theology and science (scientia). Science was knowledge that was deduced from self-evident principles, and theology received its principles from the source of all principles, God. In every way, theology was superior to the other sciences, according to Thomas Aquinas. By the 14th century the ideas of science and theology

Sunday, September 19, 2004

Wadi Al-jadid, Al-

(English: “New Valley”), desert muhafazah (governorate), Egypt. It includes the entire southwestern quadrant of the country, from the Nile River valley (east) to the frontiers with The Sudan (south) and Libya (west). Its total area covers approximately two-fifths of Egypt. Until 1958 the muhafazah was known as as-Sahra' al-Janubiyah, meaning “southern desert.” For national planning purposes, the term

Saturday, September 18, 2004


Flemish  Ukkel  municipality, Brussels region, central Belgium. It lies just south of Brussels and is one of the 19 communes that make up Greater Brussels. Formerly a separate town dating back to the 12th century, it is now a primarily residential suburb with some light manufacturing. It is the site of the Royal Observatory and has several châteaus (Errera, Uccle, and Ithier). The Russian Orthodox

Thursday, September 16, 2004

Koguryo Style

Korean visual-arts style characteristic of the Koguryo kingdom (37 BC–AD 668) of the Three Kingdoms period. The Koguryo were a horse-riding northern people, and their art was powered by the forceful spirit of a hunter-warrior tribe. Their fresco paintings on the walls of tombs are characterized by movement and emotion rather than formal beauty and decorative visual effect. Outlines

Tuesday, September 14, 2004

Sweyn Ii Estridsen

The son of Ulf, a Danish earl, and Estrid, a sister of Canute I the Great, Sweyn fled to Sweden after his father was murdered in 1027 on orders of Canute. After the death of Canute (1035), when Hardecanute was ruling in Denmark and Magnus in Norway, the young kings agreed that whoever lived longer

Sunday, September 12, 2004

Kearny, Stephen Watts

After serving in the War of 1812, Kearny spent most of the next 30 years on frontier duty. At the beginning of the Mexican War, he was ordered to lead an expedition from Fort Leavenworth, Kan., to seize New Mexico and California for the United States. Lacking

Thursday, September 09, 2004

Felix (ii)

Antipope from 355 to 358. Originally an archdeacon, Felix was irregularly installed as pope in 355 after the emperor Constantius banished the reigning pope, Liberius. In May 357 the Roman laity, which had remained faithful to Liberius, demanded that Constantius recall the true pope. The Emperor planned to have Felix and Liberius rule jointly, but Felix was forced

Wednesday, September 08, 2004

Gladstone, William Ewart

Gladstone's first Cabinet (1868–74) was perhaps the most capable of the century. Its prime minister tried to supervise the work of each department, devoting his main efforts to Irish and foreign policy. The Irish Protestant church was successfully disestablished in 1869, and a first attempt to grapple with oppressive landlordism in Ireland was made unsuccessfully in 1870; abroad,

Sunday, September 05, 2004

Waitaki River

River in central South Island, New Zealand. Streams issuing from Lakes Ohau, Pukaki, and Tekapo in the Southern Alps form the Waitaki (Maori: “Weeping Waters”), which, draining a 4,565-square-mile (11,823-square-kilometre) basin, flows southeast for 130 miles (209 km) to enter the Pacific at Glenavy, about 70 miles (113 km) north of Dunedin. The Waitaki River Power Development, which includes several large

Friday, September 03, 2004


Also called  Orayvi,  or  Old Oraibi,   Hopi pueblo (village), Navajo county, northeastern Arizona, U.S. The pueblo is situated on the narrow, rocky Third Mesa of the Hopi Indian Reservation. It is the unofficial capital of the reservation and is thought to be the oldest continuously occupied settlement in the United States (from about AD 1150). It lies at an elevation of nearly 6,500 feet (1,980 metres). Oraibi was the site of the San

Thursday, September 02, 2004

Baqdash, Khalid

As a young man Baqdash went to law school in Damascus but was expelled for illegal political activity. In 1930 he joined the Communist Party and began to acquire a reputation for skillful public debate, dedication