Tuesday, August 31, 2004

Shiels, Robert

Moving to London, where he was a printer, Shiels was employed by Samuel Johnson as an amanuensis on the Dictionary of the English Language. When this work was completed, Shiels, with others, began the compilation of a five-volume The Lives of the Poets of Great Britain and Ireland, to the Time of Dean

Saturday, August 28, 2004

Caudata, Size range and diversity of structure

The most typical salamanders are short-bodied, four-legged, moist-skinned vertebrates about 100 to 150 millimetres (about 4 to 6 inches) long. The tail is usually about as long as the body. There is much variation in size, and terrestrial salamanders range from 40 to nearly 350 millimetres, with a few exceeding 1 metre (39 inches) in length. Members of most species live in moist places on land

Friday, August 27, 2004

Tin Processing

There is evidence from both archaeology and literature that tin was one of the earliest metals to be known and used. Its earliest application was as an alloy with copper to form bronze, which was fashioned into tools and weapons. Bronze articles (typically containing about 10 percent tin) have been found in the Middle East dating from about 3500 BC and in Egypt from 3000 BC. Other ancient

Tuesday, August 24, 2004


Officially  Republic of Paraguay , Spanish  República del Paraguay  country in south-central South America. A landlocked country, it is bordered by Bolivia to the northwest and north, Brazil to the northeast and east, and Argentina to the southeast, south, and west. It has a total area of 157,048 square miles (406,752 square kilometres). The national capital is Asunción, which is located on the east bank of the Paraguay River opposite the mouth of its primary

Monday, August 23, 2004


(Falco rusticolus), Arctic bird of prey of the family Falconidae, the world's largest falcon (q.v.). The gyrfalcon may reach 60 cm (2 feet) in length. Confined as a breeder to the circumpolar region except for isolated populations in Central Asian highlands, it is sometimes seen at lower latitudes in winters when food is scarce. The gyrfalcon varies from pure white with black speckling

Sunday, August 22, 2004

Orlov, Grigory Grigoryevich, Graf (count)

Having entered the cadet corps in 1749, Orlov became an artillery officer and fought in the Battle of

Saturday, August 21, 2004


In logic, a sentence or proposition of the form “If A then B” [in symbols, A É B] is called a conditional (sentence or proposition). Similarly, “Whenever A then B” {in symbols, (x) [A(x) É B

Friday, August 20, 2004


The region along the southern bank of the Yangtze between Ma-an-shan and T'ung-ling (about

Thursday, August 19, 2004

Harcourt, Sir William

A lawyer from 1854, Harcourt briefly taught international law at the University of Cambridge. Entering the House of Commons in 1868, Harcourt served Prime


A type of acrostic in which the first letter of each line of a poem or the first letter of the first word of each stanza taken in order forms the alphabet. Examples of these are some of the Psalms (in Hebrew), such as Psalms 25 and 34, where successive verses begin with the letters of the Hebrew alphabet in order. The word is from the late Latin for “alphabetical” and is derived from

Tuesday, August 17, 2004

Holliday, Doc

Holliday was reared in Georgia in the genteel tradition of the Old South, graduated from the Pennsylvania College of Dental Surgery in 1872, and, already consumptive, moved west for drier climes. He practiced dentistry briefly in Dallas but soon discovered

Monday, August 16, 2004

Gandhi, Indira

She was the only child of Jawaharlal Nehru, the first prime minister of independent India. She attended Visva-Bharati University, West Bengal, and the University of Oxford, and in 1942 she married Feroze

Great Hall

Main apartment in a medieval manor house, monastery, or college, in which meals were taken. In large manor houses it also served other purposes: justice was administered there, entertainments given, and often at night the floor was strewn with rushes so that many of the servants could sleep there.

Sunday, August 15, 2004

Prince, Harold

The son of a New York stockbroker, Prince majored in English at the University of Pennsylvania (B.A., 1948) and began his theatrical career as an apprentice and stage manager for the noted producer

Saturday, August 14, 2004

Cle Elum River

Watercourse, central Washington, U.S., rising in the Cascade Range. The river flows generally south through Cle Elum Lake, thence southeast past Cle Elum, joining the Yakima River of the Columbia River system after a course of about 28 miles (45 km). The fast-flowing river is a favourite destination for white-water rafting and kayaking; its name derives from the Yakima Indian

Thursday, August 12, 2004

Cadillac, Antoine Laumet De La Mothe

With permission

Wednesday, August 11, 2004

La Tour, Maurice-quentin De

Early in his youth La Tour went to Paris, where he entered the studio of the Flemish painter Jacques Spoede. He then went to Reims, Cambrai (1724), and England (c. 1725), returning to Paris to resume

Tuesday, August 10, 2004

Hawes, Harriet Ann Boyd

Harriet Boyd graduated from Smith College, Northampton, Massachusetts, in 1892; thereafter she taught ancient and modern languages for four years, first as a private tutor in Henderson, North Carolina, and then at a girls' school in Wilmington,

Monday, August 09, 2004

Coleridge, Sara

During her childhood, her father was seldom at home, and his brother-in-law Robert Southey chiefly influenced Sara's early years. She did not see her father from 1812 to 1822, when she visited him at Highgate

Saturday, August 07, 2004

Anthony Of Bourbon

Son of Charles of Bourbon, duke of Vendôme, he married (1548) Jeanne d'Albret, daughter of Henry II, king of Navarre; as sole heir, she brought her husband the title of king of Navarre. Anthony was involved with his brother, Louis I de Bourbon, prince de Condé, in the Huguenot conspiracy of Amboise,

Friday, August 06, 2004

Guare, John

Guare, who at age 11 produced his first play for friends and family, was educated at Georgetown University, Washington, D.C. (B.A., 1960), and at Yale University (M.F.A., 1963). He then began staging short plays, primarily in New York City, where he helped to found the Eugene O'Neill Memorial Theatre Playwrights'

Thursday, August 05, 2004


French sheepdog breed mentioned in French records of the 12th century and depicted in medieval French tapestries. It is known in France as berger de Brie (sheepdog of Brie) but is found throughout the French provinces. The briard is a lithe, strongly built dog with bushy brows and a long, more-or-less waterproof coat. It stands 56 to 69 cm (22 to 27 inches), weighs about 36 kg (80 pounds), and is

Wednesday, August 04, 2004

Wilder, Douglas

In full  Lawrence Douglas Wilder  American politician, the first popularly elected African American governor in the United States. He received a bachelor's degree in chemistry from Virginia Union University (1951) and a law degree from Howard University (1959). Wilder pursued a legal and political career in Richmond, Virginia, and served as a director of the Richmond chapter of

Gabon, History Of

Early history is presented in David E. Gardinier, “The Beginnings of French Catholic Evangelization in Gabon and African Responses, 1844–1883,” French Colonial Studies, no. 2 (1978), pp. 49–74, on the planting of Catholicism in Gabon, and “Les Frères de Saint-Gabriel au Gabon, 1900–1918, et la naissance d'une nouvelle élite africaine,” Mondes et Cultures, 46(3):593–606 (1986), on the education of the anticolonialist elite prominent in Gabon's political life since 1944. K. David Patterson, The Northern Gabon Coast to 1875 (1975), examines the economic and political evolution of northern Gabon. Brian Weinstein, Gabon: Nation-building on the Ogooue (1966), describes political development, especially from the 1940s to the early '60s. Charles F. Darlington and Alice B. Darlington, African Betrayal (1968), is an account by the American ambassador to Libreville who witnessed the coup of 1964 and the French intervention. François Gaulme, Le Gabon et son ombre (1988), traces the political, economic, and social evolution since 1960. Michael C. Reed, “Gabon: A Neo-Colonial Enclave of Enduring French Interest,” The Journal of Modern African Studies, 25(2):283–320 (June 1987), focuses on the recent modern period. David E. Gardinier, Historical Dictionary of Gabon (1981), concentrates on the political evolution in the 20th century, with a large bibliography.

Sunday, August 01, 2004


City, southern Honduras, on the seasonally dry Nacaome River. It was founded in 1535 and given city status in 1845. Its colonial church, rebuilt in 1867, still stands. Nacaome is a manufacturing and commercial centre. Cement products are made in the city, which also contains tanneries. The surrounding agricultural lands yield principally sesame and cotton. Gold and silver are mined


Wool has been the material most widely used for making the warp, or the parallel series of threads that run lengthwise in the fabric of the tapestry. The width-running, weft, or filling threads, which are passed at right angles above and below the warp threads, thereby completely covering them, are also most commonly of wool. The advantages of wool in the weaving of tapestries