Friday, July 30, 2004

Hall, Charles Martin

While a student at Oberlin (Ohio) College Hall became interested in producing aluminum inexpensively. He continued to use the college laboratory after his graduation in 1885, discovering his method

Wednesday, July 28, 2004

Roux, Wilhelm

A student of German biologist Ernst Haeckel, Roux studied in Jena, Berlin, and Strasbourg. He was an assistant at the Institute of

Tuesday, July 27, 2004

Kirchwey, Freda

Kirchwey was the daughter of a Columbia University Law School professor and dean and later (1915–16) warden of Sing Sing State Prison (now Ossining Correctional Facility). She graduated from Barnard College, New York City, in

Monday, July 26, 2004


In ethology, any of a variety of movements among animals that results in progression from one place to another.

Qoboza, Percy (peter)

After studying theology in Basutoland (now Lesotho) and at Pax Training College in Pietersburg (1959), Qoboza turned to journalism and joined the staff of the World (1963); he became editor in 1974. Under his leadership,

Saturday, July 24, 2004

Bar Harbor

Coastal town, Hancock county, southern Maine, U.S. It is on Mount Desert Island at the foot of Cadillac Mountain (1,530 feet [466 metres]) facing Frenchman Bay, 46 miles (74 km) southeast of Bangor. Settled in 1763, it was incorporated in 1796 as Eden; the present name (for Bar Island in the main harbour) was adopted in 1918. Most of the town was destroyed by fire in 1947. Rebuilt Bar Harbor is the centre of a popular resort

Friday, July 23, 2004

Anti-masonic Movement

In the history of the United States, popular movement based on public indignation at and suspicion of the secret fraternal order known as the Masons, or Freemasons. Opponents of this society seized upon the uproar to create the Anti-Masonic Party. It was the first American third party, the first political party to hold a national nominating convention, and the first


Waccho assassinated his uncle Tato and usurped the throne about 510, ruling for 30 years. Tato's son and grandson took refuge with the king of a neighbouring people, the Gepidae, making several fruitless attempts to

Thursday, July 22, 2004

Somalia, Religion

Most Somali belong to the Shafi'i rite of the Sunnite sect of Islam. Various Muslim orders (tariqa) are important, especially the Qadiriyah, the Ahmadiyah, and the Salihiyah.

Wednesday, July 21, 2004


Overstretching or tearing of fibres in one or more of the ligaments that support a joint, caused by forced movement beyond their range. Symptoms include sudden severe pain, then swelling around the joint, tenderness, stiffness, and often black-and-blue marks as a result of bleeding into the joint. The common sites for sprains are the ankle, wrist, knee, finger or toe joints,

Monday, July 19, 2004

Tientsin Massacre

(June 21, 1870), in Tientsin, China, violent outbreak of Chinese xenophobic sentiment that nearly precipitated international warfare and signaled the end of the “cooperative policy” between China and the Western treaty powers. Before the incident, rumours circulated in Tientsin that the French Sisters of Charity were kidnapping and mutilating Chinese children. Hostility

Sunday, July 18, 2004

Satavahana Dynasty

On the strength of Puranic evidence

Saturday, July 17, 2004

Great Chain Of Being

Also called  Chain Of Being,   conception of the nature of the universe that had a pervasive influence on Western thought, particularly through the ancient Greek Neoplatonists and derivative philosophies during the European Renaissance and the 17th and early 18th centuries. The term denotes three general features of the universe: plenitude, continuity, and gradation. The principle of plenitude

Thursday, July 15, 2004

Müntzer, Thomas

Thomas Müntzer was the son of a burgher in Stolberg in the Harz Mountains. Of his childhood and youth very little is known. His name appears in the 1506 register of the University of Leipzig, and in 1512 he attended the University of Frankfurt an der Oder, later earning the academic ranks of master of arts and bachelor of theology. Müntzer became a linguistic specialist in Latin,

Wednesday, July 14, 2004

Price, Sterling

After attending Hampden-Sydney College (1826–27), Price studied law. In 1831 he moved with his family from Virginia to Missouri, where he entered public life. He served in the state legislature from 1836 to 1838 and again from 1840 to 1844, the latter period as speaker of the

Radic, Stjepan

With his brother Ante, he organized the Croatian Peasant Party in 1904. In March 1918 Radic began to cooperate with the National Council in Zagreb for the establishment of a Yugoslav

Monday, July 12, 2004


Extinct genus of brachiopods, or lamp shells, which as fossils are especially characteristic of Ordovician marine rocks (438 to 505 million years old). The plano-convex shell of Hesperorthis consists of two units (or valves), the brachial valve being flat and the pedicle valve convex. The shell has a radiating pattern of ribs and a relatively broad, triangular area at the dorsal

Sunday, July 11, 2004

Arabia, Northern Arabia

The Wadi As-Sirhan, a depression rather than a true wadi, is about 200 miles long and 1,000 feet below the adjacent plateau. Northeast of Wadi As-Sirhan are wide lava fields and chert plains belonging to the southern part of Al-Hamad, the Syrian Desert. The basin containing An-Nafud is rimmed on the north by escarpments, down the northern slope of which run the 'Anizah Wadis (the wadis of the

Saturday, July 10, 2004

China, Food production

The primary Neolithic crops, domesticated by the 5th millennium BC, were drought-resistant millet (usually Setaria italica), grown on the eolian or alluvial loess soils of the northwest and the north, and glutenous rice (Oryza sativa), grown in the wetlands of the southeast. These staples were supplemented by a variety of fruits, nuts, legumes, vegetables, and aquatic plants.

Friday, July 09, 2004

Shiloh, Battle Of

Also called  Battle of Pittsburg Landing   (April 6–7, 1862), second great engagement of the American Civil War, fought in southwestern Tennessee, resulting in a victory for the North and in large casualties for both sides. In February, Union General Ulysses S. Grant had taken Fort Henry on the Tennessee River and Fort Donelson on the Cumberland. The Confederates had acknowledged the importance of these forts by abandoning


Agriculture is the mainstay of the Tongan economy. Coconuts, bananas, and vanilla beans constitute the main cash crops, and other important crops include yams, taro, cassava, corn (maize), watermelons, pineapples, and tomatoes. All land is essentially owned by the Crown, but large estates have been divided among the nobles of Tonga. Land is parceled out to peasant proprietors:

Thursday, July 08, 2004


City, Thuringia Land (state), east-central Germany, on the Saale River, at the northeast edge of the Thüringer Wald (forest), south of Weimar. First mentioned in 899 as a royal palace, it was the site of a Benedictine monastery founded in 1071. The present town dates from 1200. It was sold by the counts of Schwarzburg in 1389 to the House of Wettin and was the seat of the Duchy of Saxe-Saalfeld from

Tuesday, July 06, 2004

Akutagawa Ryunosuke

As a boy Akutagawa was sickly and hypersensitive, but he excelled at school and was a voracious reader. He began his literary career while attending Tokyo Imperial University (now the University of Tokyo), where he studied English literature from


The leaves are usually alternate, broad, leathery, lance-shaped, and toothed. The flowers, which are cylindrical or urn-shaped, have a five-lobed calyx (the sepals, collectively) and grow in a terminal or

Sunday, July 04, 2004

Black Code

The black

Saturday, July 03, 2004

Tudor, Antony

He began his dance studies at 19 years of age with Marie Rambert and for her company choreographed his first ballet, Cross-Gartered (1931), based on an incident in Shakespeare's Twelfth Night. In 1938 he founded his own company,

Friday, July 02, 2004


Semilegendary Greek poet and musician of Methymna in Lesbos. He is said to have invented the dithyramb (choral poem or chant performed at the festival of Dionysus); that is, he gave it literary form. His father's name, Cycleus, indicates the connection of the son with the cyclic or circular chorus of the dithyramb. None of his works survives, and only one story about his life

Thursday, July 01, 2004

Romano, Luis

Romano's writings

Cp Violation

In particle physics, violation of the combined conservation laws associated with charge conjugation (C) and parity (P) by the weak nuclear force, which is responsible for reactions such as the decay of atomic nuclei. Charge conjugation is a mathematical operation that transforms a particle into an antiparticle, for example, changing the sign of the charge. Charge