Wednesday, June 30, 2004

Arts, Central Asian, Painting: frescoes and temple banners

Temple interiors are usually covered with frescoes and often hung with painted banners, or tanka (thang-ka). For the preparation of the latter, a taut cotton cloth is impregnated with a mixture of chalk and glue, rubbed smooth by some suitable object; for example, a flat polished stone. A religious painter trained in the tradition draws in the outline, often using printed

Monday, June 28, 2004


In full  San Antonio De Ibarra,   city, north-central Ecuador, situated in an Andean valley at an elevation of 7,300 feet (2,200 m), within the Ecuadorian Lake District. It was founded in 1606 by the soldier Cristóbal Torre, a representative of Miguel de Ibarra, the president of the royal audiencia of Quito (a judicial–legislative body), and was named for him. Though largely destroyed by an earthquake in 1868, it has retained much

Sunday, June 27, 2004

Nevado De Toluca National Park

Park in Mexico estado (“state”), central Mexico. It is situated in the municipality of Zinacantepec, on the Mexico–Toluca–Guadalajara highway west of Mexico City. Established in 1936, it has an area of 259 square miles (671 square km). The park lies in the Nevado de Toluca (or Zinantecatl) Mountains, which rise above 15,025 feet (4,580 m). Among the park's chief features are an extinct, snowcapped volcano

Saturday, June 26, 2004


Legal invalidation of a marriage. Annulment announces the invalidity of a marriage that was void from its inception. It is to be distinguished from dissolution, which ends a valid marriage for special reasons—e.g., insanity of one partner after marrying. The annulment decree attempts to leave the parties in statu quo ante (as they were before the marriage), unless doing

Friday, June 25, 2004

Jordan, Biblical associations

Biblical accounts of the area, dating from the Middle Bronze Age onward, mention kingdoms such as Gilead in the north, Moab in central Jordan, and Midian in the south. At the time of the Exodus, the Israelites tried to pass through Edom in southern Jordan but were refused permission. They were at first repelled by the Amorites, whom they later defeated. The Israelite tribes

Gumplowicz, Ludwig

The son of Jewish parents, Gumplowicz

Wednesday, June 23, 2004


Estado (“state”), southern Mexico, bounded south by the Pacific Ocean, west by Guerrero, north by Puebla, northeast by Veracruz, and east by Chiapas. The state's territory, with an area of 36,275 square miles (93,952 square km), includes most of the Isthmus of Tehuantepec on its Pacific side. The Sierra Madre del Sur ends at the isthmus, which is low, hot, and arid. The Atlantic lowlands near Veracruz


City, Sverdlovsk oblast (province), west-central Russia. It lies in the eastern foothills of the middle Ural Mountains. Developed from the settlement of Kudelka, founded in 1720 around the first Russian discovery of asbestos—from which it takes its name—it became a city in 1933. Asbestos production from the Bazhenovo deposit has been carried on since the 1880s. A century later the

Tuesday, June 22, 2004

Arensky, Anton

Although he was a composition student under Nikolay Rimsky-Korsakov, Arensky's work was more akin to that of Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky; the predominant moods of his music are lyrical and elegiac. Of his three

Saturday, June 19, 2004


Device for measuring relatively high temperatures, such as are encountered in furnaces. Most pyrometers work by measuring radiation from the body whose temperature is to be measured. Radiation devices have the advantage of not having to touch the material being measured. Optical pyrometers, for example, measure the temperature of incandescent bodies by comparing

Seto Ware

Ceramics manufactured in Seto by one of the so-called Six Ancient Kilns of Japan. It was first produced in the later Kamakura period toward the close of the 13th century. The origin of Seto ware is usually attributed to Kato Shirozaemon (Toshiro), who is said to have studied ceramic manufacture in southern China and produced pottery of his own in the Seto district upon his return.

Friday, June 18, 2004

Sileru River

Also called  Machkund  river, Andhra Pradesh state, southern India. The river rises as the Machkund in the Eastern Ghats in northeastern Andhra Pradesh. Leaving the Machkund reservoir, it flows (as the Sileru) parallel to the mountain ranges at an elevation of 2,000–3,000 feet (600–900 m) in a northeast-to-southwest direction to empty into the Sabari River, opposite Konta, in Madhya Pradesh state, 60 miles (100 km) north-northwest

Thursday, June 17, 2004


In Norse mythology, race of gods responsible for wealth, fertility, and commerce and subordinate to the warlike Aesir. As reparation for the torture of their goddess Gullveig, the Vanir demanded from the Aesir monetary satisfaction or equal status. Declaring war instead, the Aesir suffered numerous defeats before granting equality. The Vanir sent their gods Nj

Wednesday, June 16, 2004

Cache Memory

Also called  Cache,   a supplementary memory system that temporarily stores frequently used instructions and data for quicker processing by the central processor of a computer. The cache augments, and is an extension of, a computer's main memory. Both main memory and cache are internal, random-access memories (RAMs) that use semiconductor-based transistor circuits. Cache holds a copy

Monday, June 14, 2004

Diving Petrel

Any of five species of small seabirds of the sub-Antarctic regions that constitute the family Pelecanoididae (order Procellariiformes). Although their nearest relatives are the storm petrels, shearwaters, and albatrosses, diving petrels differ from these long-winged forms and instead resemble the smaller auks of the Northern Hemisphere, a classic example of

Saturday, June 12, 2004


Town, central Turkey, on the Ankara-Kayseri railway near the Kizil River. Formerly a village, it owes its rapid rise in population mainly to the establishment of steel mills in the 1950s. These works, among the largest in the country, specialize in high-quality alloy steel and machinery. In the 1960s chemical plants were added. Electricity is provided by a generating plant that is


In Greek mythology, the son of the river god Cephissus and the nymph Leiriope; he was distinguished for his beauty. His mother was told that he would have a long life, provided he never looked upon his own features. His rejection, however, of the love of the nymph Echo or of his lover Ameinias drew upon him the vengeance of the gods. He fell in love with his own reflection in

Friday, June 11, 2004

Addison Disease

The adrenal cortex produces numerous hormones called corticosteroids, which are involved in important functions of the body such as regulation of metabolism, blood pressure, and sodium and potassium levels. Damage to the

Thursday, June 10, 2004



Tuesday, June 08, 2004


State of India. Comprising a mainland district on the country's western coast and an offshore island, it is located 250 miles (400 kilometres) south of Bombay. It is bounded by the states of Maharashtra on the north and Karnataka on the east and south and by the Arabian Sea on the west. The total area is 1,429 square miles (3,702 square kilometres). The capital is Panaji (Panjim). Formerly a Portuguese

Eakins, Thomas

Eakins returned to Philadelphia in the summer of 1870. His earliest artistic subjects were his sisters and other members of his family and the family of his fiancée, Katherine Crowell. Redolent with the character of each individual in an intimate and personal domestic setting—pensive young ladies at the piano, children engrossed with toys scattered on the floor, Katherine

Monday, June 07, 2004


The Olmec people lived in hot, humid lowlands along the Gulf Coast in what is now southern Veracruz and Tabasco states in southern Mexico. The first evidences of their remarkable

Sunday, June 06, 2004

Mason And Dixon Line

Also called  Mason-Dixon Line,  originally the boundary between Maryland and Pennsylvania in the United States. In the pre-Civil War period it was regarded, together with the Ohio River, as the dividing line between slave states south of it and free-soil states north of it. Between 1763 and 1767 the 233-mile (375-kilometre) line was surveyed along the parallel 39°43¢ by two Englishmen, Charles Mason and Jeremiah Dixon, to define

Saturday, June 05, 2004

Croagh Patrick

Irish  Cruach Phádraig  quartzite peak, west of Westport and south of Clew Bay, County Mayo, Ireland. It rises to 2,510 feet (765 m) from a plateau 800–1,100 feet (245–335 m) high. The mountain is said to have been visited by St. Patrick (fl. 5th century), who, according to one authority, began his ministry there. In modern times, Croagh Patrick has become the site of a popular annual pilgrimage on the last Sunday in July, in which many people

Friday, June 04, 2004


Tibetan  Sgrol-ma  Buddhist saviour-goddess with numerous forms, widely popular in Nepal, Tibet, and Mongolia. She is the feminine counterpart of the bodhisattva (“Buddha-to-be”) Avalokitesvara. According to popular belief, she came into existence from a tear of Avalokitesvara, which fell to the ground and formed a lake. Out of its waters rose up a lotus, which, on opening, revealed the goddess.

Thursday, June 03, 2004

Physical Medicine And Rehabilitation

Also called  Physiatry, Physical Therapy, or Rehabilitation Medicine,  medical specialty concerned with the treatment of chronic disabilities and with the restoration of normal functioning to the disabled through physical modes of treatment, such as exercise. This specialized medical service is generally aimed at rehabilitating persons disabled by pain or ailments affecting the motor functions of the body. Physical medicine

Tuesday, June 01, 2004

Ben Nevis

Highest mountain of the British Isles, in the Highland council area, Scotland. Its summit, reaching an elevation of 4,406 feet (1,343 metres), is a plateau of about 100 acres (40 hectares), with a slight slope to the south and a sheer face to the northeast. Snow lies in some parts all year, and permafrost conditions are almost reached. The mountain consists of a superstructure of volcanic rocks

Saratoga Springs

City, Saratoga county, east-central New York, U.S. It lies in the foothills of the Adirondack Mountains, west of the Hudson River, 30 miles (48 km) north of Albany. Possessing numerous natural mineral springs, its site was an ancient Mohawk Indian camping ground with various spellings and meanings, the most acceptable being Sa-ragh-to-ga (“Place of Swift Water”). Saratoga National