Sunday, May 30, 2004

Shensi, Resources

The basin in the north of the province has enormous coal reserves, second in size only to those of Shansi. Important modern mines are those at T'ung-ch'uan, on the northern slope of the Wei Valley, and at Han-ch'eng, near the Huang Ho. There are minor coal and oil-shale deposits in the Han Basin in the south, where there are also iron-ore deposits. The Tsinling Mountains contain

Alexander I

Russian  in full Aleksandr Pavlovich   emperor of Russia (1801–25), who alternately fought and befriended Napoleon I during the Napoleonic Wars but who ultimately (1813–15) helped form the coalition that defeated the emperor of the French. He took part in the Congress of Vienna (1814–15), drove for the establishment of the Holy Alliance (1815), and took part in the conferences that

Saturday, May 29, 2004


Muslim holy day observed on the 10th of Muharram, the first month of the Islamic year (Gregorian date variable). 'Ashura' was originally designated in AD 622 by Muhammad, soon after the Hijrah (Hegira), as a day of fasting from sunset to sunset, probably patterned on the Jewish Day of Atonement, Yom Kippur. When Jewish-Muslim relations became strained, however, Muhammad made Ramadan the

Friday, May 28, 2004

Gumilyov, Nikolay Stepanovich

The son of a naval surgeon, Gumilyov was educated at the Tsarskoye Selo Lyceum, where he was influenced by the poet and teacher Innokenty Annensky. Gumilyov's earliest published volumes

Wednesday, May 26, 2004


Also called  Variety Meats,   any of various nonmuscular parts of the carcasses of beef and veal, mutton and lamb, and pork, which are either consumed directly as food or used in the production of other foods. Variety meats have been a part of the human diet since the invention of cooking, which rendered the otherwise indigestible animal parts edible. In nutritional terms, several variety meats


Sculpture, ornamental objects, and architectural coverings and fittings made of lead. Although the ease with which lead is smelted from lead ores ensured its early discovery, the softness of the metal restricted its use until Roman times. The earliest known use of lead dates from about 3000 BC in Egypt and Asia Minor, when it was used in making small statuettes and votive

Monday, May 24, 2004

Black Rock Desert

Arid region of lava beds and alkali flats composing part of the Basin and Range Province and lying in Humboldt and Pershing counties of northwestern Nevada, U.S. With an area of about 1,000 square miles (2,600 square km), the desert is 70 miles (110 km) long and up to 20 miles (32 km) wide. Once occupied by ancient Lake Lahontan, it serves as the sink of the Quinn River and, at times, is largely covered with

Nature, Philosophy Of, Evolutionary ethics

Toward the end of the 19th century, Herbert Spencer, in England,

Friday, May 21, 2004

Spain, Primo de Rivera

Primo de Rivera was a political improviser who believed his mission was to save Spain from the old politicians and to hand over government (after an interval of personal rule) to “clean” patriots. He failed to complete the process because his rule became increasingly unpopular, especially among the intellectuals and Catalans. The September 1923 coup by which he had gained

Wednesday, May 19, 2004

Mental Disorder, Affective disorders

Depression is characterized by a sad or hopeless mood, pessimistic thinking, a loss of enjoyment and interest in one's usual activities and pastimes, reduced energy and vitality,

Tuesday, May 18, 2004


City, Bashkortostan, western Russia, on the Belaya (White) River. It was founded in 1948 as a major oil centre of the Volga-Urals oil field, and the city has a large refinery and petrochemical industry. Technical glass and machinery for the petroleum industry are also produced in Salavat. A network of pipelines links Salavat to the petroleum-drilling areas. Pop. (1992 est.) 152,000.

Monday, May 17, 2004

Baldovinetti, Alesso



Also spelled  Gat,   oasis, southwestern Libya, near the Algerian border. Located on an ancient Saharan caravan route, it was a slave-trading centre and the object of European exploration in the 19th century. Ghat lies west of the Wadi (watercourse) Tanezzuft in hilly sandstone country, near the Jibal Akakus (mountains) and the Tadrart plateau. A nearby offshoot of the mountains, Idinen, is a legendary

Saturday, May 15, 2004

Gyliakian Series

Major division of Cretaceous rocks and time in Japan (the Cretaceous Period began about 144,000,000 years ago and lasted about 77,600,000 years). Rocks of the Gyliakian Series overlie those of the Miyakoan Series and underlie rocks of the Urakawan Series. Two stages, the Upper and Lower Gyliakian stages, are recognized and represent shorter spans of time. Distinctive fossil cephalopods

Friday, May 14, 2004

Fu'ad I

After serving in a number of administrative posts, Fu'ad became sultan of Egypt in 1917, at which time Egypt was still a British protectorate. In 1919 Britain indicated a willingness to negotiate a treaty that would give Egypt more independence. Most Egyptians welcomed this prospect,

Thursday, May 13, 2004

Arts, Central Asian, Sculpture

The art of casting images in bronze and other metals entered Tibet from Nepal and India. Having first followed foreign models, the Tibetans gradually developed their own styles

Wright Military Flyer Of 1909


Wednesday, May 12, 2004

Alexander Romance

The chief source of all Alexander romance literature was a folk epic written in Greek by a Hellenized Egyptian in Alexandria during the 2nd century AD. Surviving translations and copies make its reconstruction possible.

Tuesday, May 11, 2004


Town, seat of Antigonish county, northeastern Nova Scotia, Canada. It lies at the head of Antigonish Bay, an inlet of St. Georges Bay, 31 miles (50 km) east of New Glasgow. The site was originally settled by the French in 1762; the first British immigrants (soldiers and Scottish Highlanders) did not arrive until after 1785. The earlier name, Dorchester, was replaced by Antigonish, a word that

Sunday, May 09, 2004


In colonial Spanish America, judicial review of an official's acts, conducted at the conclusion of his term of office. Originating in Castile in the early 15th century, it was extended to the government of Spain's colonial empire from the early 16th century. In Spain it was applied mainly to the corregidors (local administrative and judicial officials). In the New World all

Arenig Series

Also called  Arenigian Series,   the second of six divisions (in ascending order) constituting the Ordovician System, representing all those rocks deposited worldwide during the Arenigian Age (488 to 478 million years ago). The series' name is derived from the Arenig mountains in Gwynedd county in North Wales, which serve as the type area in Great Britain for rocks of this age. Welsh rock strata belonging

Friday, May 07, 2004

Hypostyle Hall

In architecture, interior space whose roof rests on pillars or columns. The word means literally “under pillars,” and the design allows for the construction of large spaces—as in temples, palaces, or public buildings—without the need for arches. It was used extensively in ancient Egypt—where the Temple of Amon at Karnak provides a good example—and in Persia—where the

Thursday, May 06, 2004

Insurance, Reinsurance

Two main types of treaties exist—pro rata and excess-of-loss


Verbal blunder in which one word is replaced by another similar in sound but different in meaning. Although William Shakespeare had used the device for comic effect, the term derives from Richard Brinsley Sheridan's character Mrs. Malaprop, in his play The Rivals (1775). Her name is taken from the term malapropos (French: “inappropriate”) and is typical of Sheridan's practice

Wednesday, May 05, 2004

Latin America, History Of

Latin America is generally understood to consist of the entire continent of South America in addition to Mexico, Central America, and the islands

Monday, May 03, 2004

Biblical Literature, Commutation of vows and tithes

In the final chapter of Leviticus (27), the P material is resumed with a presentation of the rules for the commutation of votive gifts and tithes. It provides for the release from vows (of offerings of persons, animals, or lands to God) through specified money payments. Some commentators understand the vow to offer persons to refer originally to human sacrifice, others as

Sunday, May 02, 2004

Shieldtail Snake


Saturday, May 01, 2004

Mitra, Ramon

Philippine politician (b. 1928, Palawan, Phil.—d. March 20, 2000, Manila, Phil.), was a prominent politician, a pro-democracy activist, and an outspoken critic of the 1966–86 regime of Philippine Pres. Ferdinand Marcos. After working as a journalist and diplomat, Mitra served in the House of Representatives in the 1960s and was elected to the Senate in 1971. After Marcos imposed martial law in the Philippines