Thursday, April 29, 2004

Fisher, Bud

After attending the University of Chicago, Fisher worked as a journalist in San Francisco, where for the San Francisco Chronicle he originated “Mr. Mutt” in 1907. Soon he added Jeff, the short one of the pair and usually the loser in their encounters. Originally a sports cartoonist,

Piteå

Town and port, län (county) of Norrbotten, northern Sweden. It lies along the Pite River near its outlet on the Gulf of Bothnia. The town was originally chartered at Öjebyn in 1621, but after a fire in 1666 it was moved to its present location. Lying in a forest-rich area, it is a centre for shipping timber and wallboard, and among its industries are sawmilling and others connected with

Wednesday, April 28, 2004

San Gabriel

City, Los Angeles county, southern California, U.S. It lies in the San Gabriel Valley, east of downtown Los Angeles. Mission San Gabriel Arcangel, founded in 1771 by Father Junípero Serra and the fourth in the California chain of 21 missions, was moved 4.5 miles (7 km) to its present site in 1775. The fortresslike mission church resembling the Córdoba Mosque (Spain) formed the nucleus of a mixed-farming

Sunday, April 25, 2004

Racine, Jean

Racine has been hailed by posterity as the foremost practitioner of tragedy in French history and the uncontested master of French classicism. He became the virtuoso of the poetic metre used in 17th-century French tragedy, the alexandrine line, and paid unwavering attention to the properly theatrical aspects of his plays, from actors' diction and gestures to space

Italian Language

Italian  Italiano,   Romance language spoken by some 66,000,000 persons in Italy (including Sicily and Sardinia), France (including Corsica), Switzerland, and other countries. It is spoken by large numbers of emigrants and their descendants in the Americas, especially in the United States, Argentina, and Canada. Written materials in Italian date from the 10th century (a set of court records with the testimony

Saturday, April 24, 2004

Habsburg, House Of

Even before Frederick III's time the House of Habsburg had won much of its standing in Germany and in central Europe through marriages to heiresses. Frederick's son Maximilian carried this matrimonial policy to heights of unequalled brilliance. First he himself in 1477 married the heiress of Burgundy, Charles the Bold's daughter Mary, with the result that the House of

Friday, April 23, 2004

Tequendama Falls

Spanish  Salto De Tequendama,   waterfalls on the Bogotá (Funza) River, which is a tributary of the Magdalena River, in the Andean Cordillera (mountains) Oriental, central Colombia. One of the country's major tourist attractions, the falls are located in a forested area 20 miles (32 km) west of Bogotá. The river surges through a rocky gorge that narrows to about 60 feet (18 m) at the brink of the 515-foot- (157-metre-) high falls. The

Wednesday, April 21, 2004

Valenciennes Lace

The

Tuesday, April 20, 2004

Sá-carneiro, Mário De

Sá-Carneiro studied in Paris at the Sorbonne. His first poems, Dispersão (“Dispersion”), were written in Paris and published in 1914. In the same year he published a novel, A Confissão de Lúcio (“The Confession of Lúcio”), and back in Portugal he

Monday, April 19, 2004

Appoggiatura

(from Italian appoggiare, “to lean”), in music, an ornamental note of long or short duration that temporarily displaces, and subsequently resolves into, a main note, usually by stepwise motion. During the Renaissance and early Baroque, the appoggiatura was of moderate length, averaging one-third of the main note, and was more in the nature of a melodic than a harmonic ornament.

Endocrinology

Medical discipline dealing with the role of hormones and other biochemical mediators in regulating bodily functions and with the treatment of imbalances of these hormones. Although some endocrine diseases, such as diabetes mellitus, have been known since antiquity, endocrinology itself is a fairly recent medical field, depending as it does on the recognition

Saturday, April 17, 2004

Vesalius, Andreas

Vesalius' work represented the culmination of the humanistic revival of ancient learning, the introduction of human dissections into medical curricula, and the growth of a European anatomical literature. Vesalius performed his dissections with a thoroughness hitherto unknown. After Vesalius, anatomy became a scientific discipline, with far-reaching implications

Zoe

The daughter of the emperor Constantine VIII, Zoe was married to the heir presumptive, Romanus III Argyrus, in 1028 and became empress consort upon his elevation to the throne the same year. She became self-assertive and jealous, exiling her sister Theodora

Thursday, April 15, 2004

Alcoy

The town is a rail

Uíge

Formerly  Carmona,   town, northwestern Angola. Uíge grew from a small market centre in 1945 to become Angola's major centre for coffee production in the 1950s. The Portuguese designated Uíge a city in 1956. Its prosperity was short-lived, however, as recurrent fighting between the National Front for the Liberation of Angola (FNLA), one of three preindependence guerrilla movements, and Portuguese forces

Wednesday, April 14, 2004

Siddons, Sarah

She was the eldest of 12 children of Roger and Sarah Kemble, who led a troupe of traveling actors (and were progenitors of a noted family of actors to a third generation, including a famous granddaughter, Fanny Kemble). Through the special care of her mother in sending

Tuesday, April 13, 2004

Cádiz, Gulf Of

Spanish  and Portuguese Golfo De Cádiz,   wide embayment of the Atlantic Ocean along the southwestern Iberian Peninsula, stretching about 200 miles (320 km) from Cape Saint Vincent (Portugal) to Gibraltar. At the Portuguese end—the south-facing area of the Algarve—the coastline consists of bold headlands and high cliffs interrupted by bay beaches, small river mouths, and numerous settlements. Continuing southward

Monday, April 12, 2004

Mahathir Bin Mohamad

The son of a schoolmaster, Mahathir was educated at Sultan Abdul Hamid College and the University of Malaya in Singapore, where he studied medicine. After graduating in 1953, he worked as a government

Saturday, April 10, 2004

Nagarakrtagama

Javanese epic poem written in 1365 by Prapañca. Considered the most important work of the vernacular literature that developed in the Majapahit era, the poem venerates King Hayam Wuruk (reigned 1350–89) and gives a detailed account of life in his kingdom. It also includes information about King Kertanagara (reigned 1268–92), great-grandfather of Hayam Wuruk.

Friday, April 09, 2004

Selangor

Region of western West Malaysia (Malaya), occupying part of a coastal alluvial plain on the Strait of Malacca. In 1974, a 94-square-mile (243-square-kilometre) portion of Selangor, centring on Kuala Lumpur, was designated a wilayapersekutuan (federal territory). Selangor's history and economic development have been closely linked with two rivers, the Kelang and the Langat, which

Birnin Kebbi

Town and capital of Kebbi state, northwestern Nigeria. It lies along the Sokoto (Kebbi) River at the intersection of roads from Argungu, Jega, and Bunza. An early settlement of the Kebbawa, a subgroup of the Hausa, it was captured about 1516 by Muhammadu Kanta, founder of the Kebbi kingdom; subsequently, it was incorporated into Kebbi, one of the banza bakwai (the seven illegitimate

Wednesday, April 07, 2004

Dahriyah

The Dahriyah are portrayed in Islamic theological literature

Tuesday, April 06, 2004

Kahn, Gustave

After study in Paris, Kahn spent four years in North Africa, returning to Paris in 1885. He helped found or edit several literary reviews, including La Vogue, Le Symboliste, and La Revue Indépendante, which printed his poems and discussed the various theories

Monday, April 05, 2004

Vieux-colombier, Theatre Of The

French theatre founded in Paris in 1913 by the writer and critic Jacques Copeau to present alternatives to both the realistic “well-made” plays of the time and the star system of actor-celebrities. Copeau sought to renovate French theatre by focusing attention on the actor, whom he viewed as the essential element in translating the dramatic text into the “poetry of the

Sunday, April 04, 2004

Melanchthon, Philipp

Melanchthon was present when the protest, from which the term Protestant originated, was lodged in the name of freedom of conscience against the Roman Catholic majority at the Second Diet of Speyer (1529). At the Diet of Augsburg (1530) Melanchthon was the leading representative of the Reformation, and it was he who prepared the Augsburg Confession, which influenced every subsequent

Craggs, James

English politician implicated in the South Sea Bubble (1720), a widespread speculation in shares of the South Sea Company, which had taken over most of the British national debt. The company persuaded investors to exchange their state annuities for the greatly overvalued stock, which rose as high as 1,000 during the summer of 1720 and fell to 124 in December.

Friday, April 02, 2004

Biogenetic Law

Also called  Recapitulation Theory,   postulation, by Ernst Haeckel in 1866, that ontogeny recapitulates phylogeny—i.e., the development of the animal embryo and young traces the evolutionary development of the species. The theory was influential and much-popularized earlier but has been of little significance in elucidating either evolution or embryonic growth.

Rykov, Aleksey Ivanovich

Rykov joined the Russian Social-Democratic Workers' Party at the age of 18, became a member of its Bolshevik wing, conducted revolutionary activities both inside Russia