Wednesday, March 31, 2004

China, Wen-ti's institutional reforms

Wen-ti's achievement consisted of much more than strengthening and reunifying the empire. He provided it with uniform institutions and established a pattern of government that survived into the T'ang dynasty and beyond. A hardworking administrator, he employed a number of extremely able ministers who combined skill in practical statecraft with a flexible approach

Photosynthesis, The pathway of electrons

The general features of a widely accepted mechanism for photoelectron transfer, in which two light reactions occur during the transfer of electrons from water to carbon dioxide, were proposed by Robert Hill and Derek Bendall, in 1960. A modified scheme for this mechanism is shown in Figure 1. In this figure the vertical scale represents the relative potential (in volts)

Tuesday, March 30, 2004

Ada Group

Ivory carvings and a group of about 10 illuminated manuscripts, dating from the last quarter of the 8th century, the earliest examples of the art of the Court School of Charlemagne. The group is named after a Gospel book (c. 750; Trier, Cathedral Treasury) commissioned by Ada, supposed half sister of Charlemagne. These earliest manuscripts of the Carolingian period, which initiated

Sunday, March 28, 2004

Confederation, Articles Of

First U.S. constitution (1781–89), which served as a bridge between the initial government by the Continental Congress of the Revolutionary period and the federal government provided under the U.S. Constitution of 1787. Because the experience of overbearing British central authority was vivid in colonial minds, the drafters of the Articles deliberately established a confederation

Carnivore, Form and function

Basically, the difference in the tooth pattern of pinnipeds, in comparison to the dentition of terrestrial carnivores, reflects an adaptation toward grasping and tearing rather than chewing. Thus there is less variation in the form of the different teeth (commonly said to be homodont, or “similar teeth”), and there tends to be a reduction in the number of teeth. There

Saturday, March 27, 2004


In music, auxiliary part or parts of a composition designed to support the principal part or to throw it into relief. In secular medieval music and in much folk and non-European music, instrumental accompaniments for singers consist of unison or octave duplications of the melody (sometimes with slight differences, creating heterophony, the simultaneous performance

Thursday, March 25, 2004


Town (township), Rockingham county, southeastern New Hampshire, U.S., just west of Haverhill, Massachusetts. The town includes the communities of Salem, Salem Depot, and North Salem. Originally a part of Haverhill, it was set off in 1725 and incorporated as Methuen. The final decision of the Massachusetts–New Hampshire boundary line (1741) divided the town; the New Hampshire portion

Wahat Al-kharijah, Al-

Also spelled  Kharga, or El-kharga,   oasis in the Libyan (Western) Desert, part of Al-Wadi al-Jadid (“New Valley”) muhafazah (governorate), in south-central Egypt. It is situated about 110 miles (180 km) west-southwest of Naj' Hammadi, to which it is linked by railroad. The name Wahat al-Kharijah means “outer oasis.” The oasis consists of two fertile zones, extending about 100 miles (160 km) north-south and from 12 to 50 miles (19 to 80 km) east-west, with an area of more

Wednesday, March 24, 2004

Amsdorf, Nikolaus Von

Educated at Leipzig and then at Wittenberg, where he became a theology professor in 1511, Amsdorf attended the Leipzig Debate with Luther in 1519 and the Diet of Worms two years later, where he participated in the plan to protect Luther from his detractors by pretending to kidnap

Monday, March 22, 2004

Earth, Constructing seismological Earth models

Effectively what is done is to start with an initial estimate of the density and velocity distributions, calculate the observed properties (periods of oscillations, travel times, and so forth), compare these with the observations, and then refine the density and velocity distributions until the observed properties are satisfactorily reproduced. An elegant mathematical

Sunday, March 21, 2004

La Matanza

Partido (political subdivision) of Gran (Greater) Buenos Aires, Arg., directly southwest of the city of Buenos Aires, in Buenos Aires province. The present-day partido was part of the Pago (country district) de las Conchas during the 17th and early 18th centuries. In 1730 the Pago de las Conchas was divided into four rural settlement areas, one of which was the Pago de la Matanza. The

Saturday, March 20, 2004

Ginsberg, Allen

Ginsberg grew up in Paterson, N.J., where his father, Louis Ginsberg, himself a poet, taught English. Allen Ginsberg's mother, whom he mourned in his long poem Kaddish (1961), was confined for years in a mental hospital. Ginsberg was

Friday, March 19, 2004

Caucasian Languages

The North Caucasian languages are divided into two groups: Abkhazo-Adyghian, or the Northwest Caucasian, languages, and Nakho-Dagestanian, or the Northeast Caucasian, languages.

Thursday, March 18, 2004


Department, north central El Salvador, bordered to the north and east by the Río Lempa Valley, with an area of 426 sq mi (1,104 sq km). It was formed in 1873. The production of indigo, important in the 19th century, has declined. Grain, sugar, rice, and beans are cultivated, and livestock is raised for dairy produce. Cabañas is noted for pottery, made from the excellent local clay deposits and centred

Ahl-e Haqq

(Arabic: “People of Truth,” or “People of God”), a secret, syncretistic religion, derived largely from Islam, whose adherents are found in western Iran, with enclaves in Iraq. They retain the 12 imams of the Ithna 'Ashariyah sect and such aspects of Islamic mysticism as the communal feast. Central to their religion, however, is a belief in seven successive manifestations of God. They

Wednesday, March 17, 2004

Aalto, Alvar

Aalto's commissions after 1950, in addition to being greater in number, were more varied and widely dispersed: a high-rise apartment building in Bremen, W.Ger. (1958), a church in Bologna, Italy (1966), an art museum

Monday, March 15, 2004


Any of four species of slender yet fairly large South American rodents similar to chinchillas. They have short forelimbs, long hindlimbs, and a long, bushy tail. The soft fur is long and dense, and the soles of the feet have fleshy pads.[how about a brief comment on interesting social structure, vocalizations, and hunting for fur/meat/extermination

Sunday, March 14, 2004

Actinide Element

Any of a series of 15 consecutive chemical elements in the periodic table from actinium to lawrencium (atomic numbers 89–103). As a group they are significant largely because of their radioactivity. Although several members of the group, including uranium (the most familiar), occur naturally, most are man-made. Both uranium and plutonium have been used in atomic bombs for their


City, southwestern North Korea. It lies just south of the 38th parallel and northwest of Seoul, South Korea. One of the oldest cities of Korea, Kaesong was the capital of the Koryo dynasty (935–1392). It was formerly called Songdo (“City of Pine”), so named because it is surrounded by pine-covered mountains: Songak (2,506 feet [764 m]), Osong (3,483 feet), Nam (584 feet), and Mansu (754 feet). Kaesong is a castle city enclosed by a

Saturday, March 13, 2004


Hallucinogenic drug and the principal iboga alkaloid, found in the stems, leaves, and especially in the roots of the African shrub Tabernanthe iboga. Ibogaine was isolated from the plant in 1901 and was synthesized in 1966. In small doses it acts as a stimulant. The peoples of West Africa and the Congo region have used iboga extracts or chewed the root of the plant in order to remain

Thursday, March 11, 2004

Caucasian Languages, Nakho-Dagestanian languages

The Nakho-Dagestanian group consists of the Nakh and Dagestanian languages. Some investigators subdivide the Nakho-Dagestanian languages into two independent groups: Central Caucasian languages (Nakh) and East Caucasian languages (Dagestan), although the great proximity of these groups, and their equal remoteness from the Abkhazo-Adyghian languages, may justify


Marriage of a man to his wife's sister, whether in the lifetime of the first wife or after her death. The term was introduced by the British anthropologist Sir James George Frazer. Though related in principle, the levirate (marriage with a deceased husband's brother) and sororate are usually but not invariably associated and appear to be the most common of preferential

Tuesday, March 09, 2004

Vulgar Latin

Spoken form of non-Classical Latin from which originated the Romance group of languages. Vulgar Latin was primarily the speech of the middle classes in Rome and the Roman provinces; it is derived from Classical Latin but varied across Roman-occupied areas according to the extent of education of the population, communication with Rome, and the original languages

China, Japanese aggression

In September 1931 a group of officers in the Kwantung Army set in motion a plot to compel the Japanese government to extend its power in Manchuria. The Japanese government was drawn, step by step, into the conquest of Manchuria and the creation of a regime known as Manchukuo. China was unable to prevent Japan from seizing this vital area. In 1934, after long negotiations, Japan

Sunday, March 07, 2004

'abbas I

The dark side of his

Saturday, March 06, 2004

Calendar Of 1998

The tax-evasion case against Webster L. Hubbell, longtime friend of Pres. Bill Clinton who is believed to hold incriminating evidence against

Friday, March 05, 2004

Steel, Variations

In order to lower power consumption, scrap can be preheated in both batch and continuous processes, often utilizing the heat of furnace off-gases. Scrap preheating to 500° C (930° F) cuts power consumption by 40 to 50 kilowatt-hours per ton, and decreases tap-to-tap time and electrode consumption. Sometimes scrap is preheated inside the EAF by oxyfuel burners, but this requires a large

Thursday, March 04, 2004

Roman Catholicism

Christian church characterized by its uniform, highly developed doctrinal and organizational structure that traces its history to the Apostles of Jesus Christ in the 1st century AD. Along with Eastern Orthodoxy and Protestantism, it is one of the three major branches of Christianity.

Wednesday, March 03, 2004


Vegetable and fodder plant the various forms of which are said to have been developed by long cultivation from the wild, or sea, cabbage (Brassica oleracea) found near the seacoast in various parts of England and continental Europe. The common horticultural forms of Brassica oleracea may be classified according to the plant parts used for food and the structure

Anselm Of Laon,

Anselm apparently studied at Bec, Fr., under St. Anselm of Canterbury. In the final quarter of the 11th century, he taught with distinction at Paris, where with William of Champeaux he supported realism. About 1100 he returned to Laon, where his theological and exegetical

Monday, March 01, 2004

Europe, Caledonian orogenic belt

The major factor that controlled the early mid-Paleozoic development of Europe was the opening and closing of the Iapetus Ocean, which gave rise to the Caledonian orogenic belt that extends from Ireland and Wales through northern England and Scotland to western Norway and northward to Finnmark in northern Norway. The belt is confined between the stable blocks